This publication deals with various factors which influence destructions and reconstructions of cultural heritage in the Middle East and North Africa. The destruction of cultural property in the Middle East and North Africa cannot be characterized as purely religious but must be seen in the context of a number of reasons, which may be related to propaganda, strategic and military reasons, or political and ethnic issues. At the same time, it must be borne in mind that jihadist groups are not the only ones that kill cultural and historical objects worth. Book is divided into three main parts. The first is a general introduction to the relevant legislation and its implementation. The second part examines the reasons for destruction and main ideas in reconstructions. It presents two types of destructions present in the region: those motivated by the religion and secular ones, explaining its existence in the Muslim society from historical, sociological, and religious perspectives. The third part is the central part of the dissertation. It consists of five case studies of five countries of the Muslim World: Syria, Iraq, Mali, Yemen, and Saudi Arabia. These studies are based on previous findings and aim to present a foundation for further comparison in the conclusion of the publication.